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Oksana Voronkevych,

PhD in Psychology, аssistant of the Practical Psychology Department

Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatyuk National Pedagogical University


As a result of the complicated situation in the socio-political, economic, educational and other spheres of social life, the level of violence in society has increased several times to nowadays. Children are the most vulnerable category, but notices in the media, scientific studies indicate that teachers also suffer from bullying.

The victim's personality is a complex integral system, which consists of three substructures: 1) psychodynamic basic properties; 2) socially determined personal qualities; 3) the features of I-concept. We studied the characteristics associated with predisposition to victim behavior, the main of which are anxiety, self-esteem, and social isolation.

As the analysis shows, underestimated self-esteem has 20,92% of students. This leads to uncertainty in themselves, timidity and lack of courage, the inability to realize their abilities. Excessive self-esteem has 37.91% of students. These students do not want to admit that everything that happens to them is a consequence of their own mistakes, laziness, lack of knowledge, abilities, or misconduct. From the obtained results, we see that students are characterized mainly by an increased level of anxiety, both personal and situational. Anxiety contributes to the development of self-doubt, instability of self-esteem and significantly reduces the quality of communication. For 13.73% of students, the desire to avoid social contacts is characteristic.

According to the results of the questionnaire "Tendency to victim behavior", indicators that significantly exceed the norm were found: 1) on the scale "implemented victimization" for students (26.8%); 2) in the scale of "inclination to aggressive victim behavior" (aggressive type of behavior) in 22.88% of the subjects; 3) on the scale of "predisposition to self-destructive behavior" (active type of behavior) in 18.3% of the subjects; 4) on the scale of "propensity to hyper social victim behavior" (initiative type of behavior) in 41.83% of the subjects; 5) on the scale of "inclination to dependent and helpless behavior (passive type of behavior) in 9,15% of the subjects. According to the scale of "inclination to non-critical behavior" (non-critical type of behavior) in 32,03% of subjects.

Thus, we believe that the empirical study revealed typical manifestations of propensity to victim behavior of future teachers. The obligatory task for practical psychologists of the University socio-psychological service is to conduct psychological prevention of victimal behavior, which should include a wide range of activities aimed at ensuring the harmonious development of the person, the creation of a safe and favorable microsocial environment.

Key words: victimization, victim behavior, victim, victimal situations, self-esteem, social isolation, type of victimality, anxiety.


Victoria Vronska,

Senior Lecturer of the Department of Pedagogy, Psychology and Remedial Education

Rivne Regional Institute of Postgraduate Education





The solution of modern health care problems in our country requires high professionalism of medical professionals. An important mission in this case is given to nurses of pre-school educational institutions. In the article we provide a brief overview of recent research and publications on this issue.

The purpose of the article is to analyze the peculiarities of the professional activity of nurses in pre-school educational institutions. In the base of the paper lie the result of 5-year research of the aforementioned issues.

Firstly, we covered issues on the history of nursing. The history of nursing dates back to ancient times. There were several stages in the development of nursing and the opening of nursing educational institutions. Florence Nightingale's contributed to the development of sanitation and nursing. Nursing was developed during the Crimean War. "Specialization" of nurses was initiated by M. Pirogov. Nowadays, issues concerning the preservation and strengthening of children's health are relevant. An important mission in solving this problem lies to the nurses of pre-school educational institutions. The article highlights the peculiarities of the professional activity of nurses of pre-school educational institutions. The main aspects of the influence of nurses on the health of pupils are analyzed. The content-analysis of features is carried out in the article. Moreover, we included the theoretical analysis of Ukrainian and world researcher on the issue and singled out the key approaches to the points studied as well as generalize and systematize them paying attention to the experience presented by the psychologists. In fact the systemic approach has been selected for the research as it is considered to be the most appropriate and applicable in the case investigated leading to the maximum efficiency of the study of psychological peculiarities of the profession of preschool educational institutions medical workers.

In addition, due attention is being also paid to the causes of professional stress such as new challenges that nurses face together with the specifics of their occupation, faster pace of life, birth rate and the general health of children. The article also includes the analysis of professional burnout, which is one more outcome of constant professional stress. The phases of stress process (i.e. alarm, resistance and exhaustion) are studied in the paper as well as peculiarities and symptoms of each phase. The author analyzes the influence of professional identity, psychological awareness and self-control on occupational burnout. The influence of the mood on professional relations, breach of professional relations and maintenance of subordination are also taken into account when considering the issue examined. Moreover, installing a defensive barrier in professional communication is also studied in the scope of occupational stress and professional burnout.

Thus, the specifics of the work of nurses in pre-school educational institutions require the formation of professional and psychological competence. Their professional activity is determined by the professional duties of nurses in pre-school educational institutions.


Key words: nurses; health; pupils; medical care; research; observation; ranking.


Halyna Handzilevska,

Dr. Sc. (Psychology), Associate Professor of the Department of Psychology and Pedagogy

The National University of Ostroh Academy

Liliia Chervinko,

Student of the National University of Ostroh Academy



In the article the problem of professional burnout of primary school teachers is studied through the prism of the development of a professional scenario, which as be part of the life script defines the extent and limits of activity in professional self, predicts behavioral strategies and expresses the attitude of teachers to themselves and others. Psychological barriers to the implementation of professional competencies of primary school teachers, provoking a burnout syndrome, which is understood as the loss of professional resources in the realization of a professional scenario, a certain plan of professional life, achievement of a professional purpose, and set scenario settings.

As investigated, primary school teachers are dominated decision-scenario settings as "Do not be small without any spontaneous" and "not work", which can block teachers from adequately adjusting to novelty and interfere with the interaction with younger school-age children, thereby provoking professional burnout. It is found that the overall rate of professional burnout depends on scenario settings such as "Do not be small, do not be spontaneous», "Do not do" and "Do not be successful". Direct correlation traced between the latter two requirements scales and indicators of burnout as "Depersonalization" and "Reduction of personal achievements." The rate of the "De-personalization" scale also depends on such an order as "Do not be yourself." A direct correlation relationship was also found between the indicator of the professional burnout scale "Psycho-emotional Exhaustion" and the "Hurry" indicator. The assumption that scenario settings are psychological barriers in the effective implementation of the professional scenario of primary school teachers is confirmed, and the need to correct scenario-decisions of teachers’ settings is revealed, in particular, "Do not be small, do not be spontaneous", "Do not do anything", "Do not be successful", " Do not be yourself", "Be excellence", "Hurry".

It has been investigated that the burnout of the teachers of the primary classes also depends on their psychological roles. There is a direct correlation between the indicators of the sex-role type of behavior “Femininity”, which prevails in primary school teachers with indicators of professional burnout, namely, "Psycho-emotional Exhaustion" and "De-personalization". In addition, direct correlation dependence has been observed as the indicator of professional burn-out "Reduction of personal achievements" with indicators of sex-role types of behavior “Masculinity” and “Androgynies”. The study emphasized the importance of taking into account the role factor in the prevention and correction of the professional burnout of primary school teachers. The direct correlation between the indicators of the sex-role type " Masculinity " and the requirements " Do not be small, do not be spontaneous ", "Do not do things", "Be perfection", "Be strong", "Try"; the indicators of the sex-role type "Femininity" and the requirements "Do not be small” , “Do not be spontaneous", "Do not be successful", "Do not do"; indicators of gender-role type " Androgyny " and the requirements "Do not do", "Be strong", "Try". The direct correlation between the indicators of sex-role types of behavior and the indicators of scenario settings allowed allocating scenario settings of primary school teachers who need correction, namely, «Do not be small, do not be spontaneous", "Do not do", "Do not be successful", "Be excellent", "Be strong", and "Try".

Prospect of further exploration it is seen in the development of an appropriate correction program for elementary school teachers.

Key words: primary school teachers, professional burnout, scenario settings, psychological roles.



Olena Zhuravlova,

Lecturer of the Department of General and Social Psychology and Sociology

Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University



One of the key conditions for full realization of the potential of modern personality is the discipline and rational use of own time. Thus, the phenomenon of procrastination (Latin pro - "forward, further", crastinate - "tomorrow") is increasingly centered on the researches, which consists of irrational postponement of important cases for later. In analyzing theoretical analysis of scientific researches dealing with outlined issue, P. Steele noted that the majority of the definitions provided by researchers are endowed with an exclusively negative connotation. It was only in 2000 that Knaus noticed that not every form of procrastination caused destructive consequences, and may even contain resource aspects. This idea is the basis for distinguishing between two types of procrastination: passive (dysfunctional) and active (functional).

The passive type of the investigated phenomenon indicates the tendency of an individual to postpone she affairs until the last moment due to the inability to make a decision to act in a timely manner. Individual is encouraged to passive procrastination, usually characterized by a shortage of organizational abilities, experiencing difficulties in setting goals, identifying priority tasks. The active procrastination envisages a rational solution to postpone action in connection with expectations of more meaningful results in the future. In this case, the individual makes an informed decision to temporarily postpone the task in order to maximize the resources required for its successful completion. Therefore, she has the skills necessary to plan, control and evaluate the progress of her own activities.

Confirmation of the desirability of assigning functional and dysfunctional procrastination as different types of one construct is revealed in a number of studies of differences in their correlation relations with a number of individual characteristics of the individual. Indeed, in the case of studying active delay, in contrast to passive, the researchers record intercourse with positive motivational and psychological properties, for example, with a high level of self-efficacy, internal control locus, emotional stability, etc.

At the same time, it should be noted that the level of doubts to the expediency of isolating active delay as an independent type of procrastination is increasing. It is widely thought in the scientific literature that the definition of procrastination was introduced into scientific circulation in order to explain the destructive form of postponement of affairs; therefore, the modification of the adverb for the purpose of assigning positive values loses its meaning, since both the functional and the dysfunctional aspects of this phenomenon are covered by the conceptually broader concept of procrastination.

Key words: active and passive procrastination, postponement, irrationality.



Zoia Kireeva,

Doctor of Psychology, Professor Odessa I. I. Mechnikov National University

Svetlana Anosenkova,

Postgraduate Student, Department of General Psychology and Psychology of Personality Development

Odessa I. I. Mechnikov National University





The article states that the representations of time are conditioned by one’s feelings, life experience, personal characteristics and influence of sociocultural phenomena and language. The article describes the problem of stability and variability of a person when considering the concepts of rigidity and flexibility. It includes the key definitions of representation focusing on the temporal one. While doing that, the author points out the concepts of the external action which initiates it and the one of its inner nature as it is generated and maintained within the individual. The comprehension of the temporal reality can be expressed in the representations of time and its specificity, which are, in their turn, determined by various factors such as one’s life experience, emotions, personal features, influence of language and sociocultural phenomena. The notion of rigidity was also analyzed especially with in its relation to flexibility and cognitive flexibility. The author also pays close attention to such characteristics of rigidity as integrity and indication of the degree of the psychological system openness. 

The study employs a set of methods and techniques among them being Tomsk Rigidity Questionnaire by Z. V. Zalevski and subjective scaling of time representation, which incorporates the categorization associative reaction words and expressions, 18 pairs of adjectives that could be used to describe time and a standard 5 point Likert scale. 

An analysis of the views of domestic and foreign scientists on the phenomena of rigidity and flexibility has shown that 38% of civil servants are prone to wide forms of fixed behavior. It has been statistically proven that civil servants are more prone to manifestations of adjusting, sensitive, premorbid rigidity. Approximately 62% of civil servants are noted for flexibility. It was established that associative, sensory-perceptual, conceptual, value-semantic, metaphorical representations of time are represented among the civil servants. The representation of time and bipolar assessments about time consists of three clusters: evaluation, organization/sequence, and dynamism. It was established that civil servants emotionally determine time as positive, treat it with ease and in general, they are satisfied, the time for them is not extended, and in general, time is perceived as a whole, saturated, discrete notion. Correlation ties between adjusting, sensitive rigidity and time representations were established. It is stated that the connections between the adjusting rigidity and the scales of time perception show that the directing on the rejection of new, changes in the internal environment of civil servants may be accompanied by a feeling of satisfaction with time, a positive attitude towards it, its organization, stretch, and security. The links between sensitive rigidity and the scales of time perception indicate that a tense emotional reaction to the new, fear of changes in the real situation is associated with a negative assessment of time, perceiving it as unorganized, eroding, jumping and causing loss of security.

Key words: personality, flexibility, rigidity, civil servant, time, time representation.


 Zhanna Novikova,

Assistant of Department of Theoretical and Practical Psychology Lviv Polytechnic National University





Religion organizations have always been a part of general structure of social society, the object of relationship between state and subjects. For a long time religion has been having important meaning in the life of all people, even when people considered themselves atheists, defending atheist ideas. 

In recent times in Ukraine there spread many new religions, which were involved into spiritual and social life of society, and also into consciousness of the citizens. This influence can be both positive and negative. The destructive cults are defined as organizations (religious, political, commercial, etc.), control the human-being’s consciousness. 

The aim of the article was to analyze the basic signs and causes providing destructive movements, and also to show psychological aspects of such influence on forming religious fanaticism which is one of the destructive forms of faith. 

The religious faith is the part of faith, and also is regarded as a general psychological phenomenon, a psychological opportunity of a person to have faith. It also provides the help in difficult and critical situations. Various approaches to faith (namely the ones considering it as a rational phenomenon and the ones which regard it as un unconscious one) are taken into consideration. In addition, the interrelation between the conceptions of fanaticism, superstition and prejudice are studied with the focus on the similar psychological mechanisms. 

The article defines the destructive religious cult as the one which can be characterized by the control of a person’s consciousness, charismatic leadership, deception, secrecy and covertness, alienation and isolation, exploitation and totalitarian worldview. Both subjective and objective causes of the spread of destructive cults are examined in the paper. 

The author mentions the following methods of changing the personality used within destructive religious cults: change of one’s interests and values as well as their vocabulary, complete isolation of a person from their past experiences, friends, habits, shaping a new cult personality. The destructive cults have their negative impacts on people’s consciousness. The important aim of the analysis is to define why some people fall under the influence of such destructive organization and what are the reasons for others to resist. 

Psychologists distinguish two forms of faith such as internal and external. People which have the

external faith use the religion to set goals, the faith give them a social status, they can feel confidence,

joy, have many social contacts. Those people who have an internal faith, live for this faith, and other

needs are not important at all. They can be made fanatics. The fanaticism is a complicated phenomenon

which has deep psychological roots. The main signs of fanatic are being anxious, fearful, uncertain and


Thus, a cause of the internal religion is undeveloped, infantile, and it is important to bring up the positive aspects of culture of religion in earlier age. 

Key words: religion, faith, totalitarian sects, destructive cults, fanaticism.



Zoia Kireeva,

Doctor of Psychology, Professor Odessa I. I. Mechnikov National University

Yana Kushnerova,

Postgraduate Student, Department of General Psychology and Psychology of Personality Development

Odessa I. I. Mechnikov National University





The article states that the adolescents’ age, as well as any other crisis, do not have clear boundaries. It has been demonstrated that within the framework of the Scientific School "Psychology of Time" D.G.Elkin - B.J. Tsukanov each person is experiencing a crisis of adolescence in the timeframe, which is conditioned by the innate mechanism of the central watch. 

The article contains the main definitions of adaptation regarding its biological facet, environmental aspect, social balance and its functionality. The role of the adaptation process in maintaining a person’s life activity and survival in the atmosphere of uncertainty was studied. Moreover, the factors that determine a person’s adaptation abilities are outlined (instincts, temperament, constitution, emotions, inborn intellectual qualities, special abilities, appearance and one’s fitness). The article states that while adapting to one’s internal and external controversies, an adolescent uncovers their own self, aptitudes, abilities, traits of character, individuality and test themselves. It also shows the limits of adaptation and its connection with a person’s constitutional, morphological, physiological, bioenergetic, neurodynamic, psychic and psychological peculiarities.

It was shown that the mechanism of personality’s psychological instability and changes in its behavior is manifested at the points of the phase-singularity of the Large Biological Cycle (C) since the multitude of beginnings and endings of vital rhythmic functions are simultaneously merged there. The τ (tau)-type, the typological group and the phase of the Large Biological Cycle on its basis were experimentally established. It has been shown that 57.1% of choleroidsand 42.9 % of sanguinoidesare located in the zone 2 ¼ C, 41.7% of melanchoidsare placed in 1 ¾ C LBC and 54.5% of sanguine at 2C. It has been demonstrated that in the majority of adolescents, who are in different periods of the LBC, express the severe hyperthymic type of accentuation of character. It is believed that this is one of the manifestations of the adequate inclusion of the adaptive capabilities of sanguine and choleric in the rise period of 2 ¼ C after restarting of the organism rhythms in 2C. But at the moment of the restarting of the organism rhythms (2C), such behavior of sanguines is considered to be maladaptive, destructive and energy-consuming for the organism. The activation of the opposite particularities, in spite of its individual characteristics, is a maladaptive process at the point of 1¾C LBC for melanchoids, which may lead to psychosomatic and mental disorders.

It has been shown that at the end of the large biological cycle an inadequate response to adaptive abilities is a compensatory mechanism when the number of hyperthymic and cyclotymeresponses decrease, and imbalance, exaltation, conflict, and impulsivity prevail. It is shown that in the period of rise(2 ¼ C), the number of manifestations of maladaptation in adolescents decreases, in general.

Key words: large biological cycle, phase singularity, type of temperament, adaptation, adaptation capabilities, psychology of time.

 Mykhailo Kots,

PhD in Psychological Sciences, Associate Professor Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University

Tetiana Yatchuk,

Masters student, Department of Psychology and Sociology Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University





Adolescents are a special category of persons, because it is at this age of rapid development that their personal and emotional spheres acquire. It is at this age that person’s restructuring and attempts to form a productive relationship with the environment take place. However, in the process of development, a teenager can meet with a variety of negative factors that will contribute to the emergence of violations of the personal sphere. One of these factors is psychophysiological disorders that lead to deformation of the personality as a whole. Psycho-correctional work to reduce these manifestations is quite complex and long-term. Quite often, existing remedial programmes do not take into account, or only partially take into account, the characteristics of children with special educational needs. It is important to develop a synthesized program that would be aimed at such a category of persons.

The aim of the study is to develop an indicative scheme of correctional work with adolescents with special educational needs focused on violations of the personal sphere.

Adolescents have difficulties in volitional regulation of their own actions and emotional manifestations, as well as a high level of anxiety among adolescents. And also insufficient knowledge about human emotions, forms of their manifestation, volitional efforts and ways of their activation were revealed.

The main methods are theoretical-analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization of scientific and practical literature on the problem of research; empirical-various forms of work both group and individual, including game interactivity, corrective exercises, elements of art therapy and fairy tale therapy, as well as psychological metaphorical maps.

The study contains the overview of the basics of the correction work and its key variants being secondary education, correctional and developmental training, compensatory and adaptation training and habilitative training. We have pointed out that the adolescences with special educational needs face specific difficulties while handling their own emotions and application of volitional activity regulation. Also it was found that they do not have enough knowledge of their emotions and about the ways of showing them. The study states the need to form adolescences’ adequate knowledge of emotional and volitional sphere of the personality, develop the ability to control their own emotion displays and volitional sphere and, finally, design approximate correctional programmes for the adolescences who have special educational needs.

We have developed such a correction program based on the correction of emotional sphere, volitional sphere and anxiety, in particular school anxiety. This program includes twelve designed sessions lasting 30-45 minutes. The complex of correctional classes is aimed at reducing the manifestation of personal disorders in adolescents with special educational needs. Students of the seventh and eighth grades of the rehabilitation center were involved in the classes

The main areas of application of the results are age and pedagogical psychology.

Key words: correctional work, children with special educational needs, personal sphere.


Liudmyla Prymachok,

PhD in Pedagogical Sciences, Professor’s assistant of the Department of human health and physical rehabilitation

of Educational and Scientific Institute of Public Health of National University of Water Management and Nature usage

(Rivne, Ukraine)





The article deals with the problem of professionalism of the activity as a qualitative characteristic of a subject of this activity, which reflects a high level of professional qualification and competence, a variety of effective professional skills and abilities, the ability to master modern algorithms and methods for solving professional tasks. These tasks have a purpose to provide the process of a professional activity with a high degree of productivity.

In turn, professionalism of the person is a qualitative characteristic of the subject of professional activity, which reflects a high level of professionally important qualities, personal and business qualities, acmeological invariants of professionalism, adequate level of claims, a high level of the development of motivational sphere and value orientations with a purpose to achieve a progressive development of a specialist, his/her professional growth.

We proceed from the fact that not only a system of mental processes, not only professional activity, not the psyche as a system of mental processes, properties and states, but a person as a holistic psychic system in a real life is constantly developed. In this case, professionalism is considered by the authors of the article as a permanently displayed mismatch between the image of a professional world (expanded and deepened in a course of the professional activity) and the value-semantic content of the professional activity (the boundary of it is the relation to the process of this activity as a way of self-realization). It was determined that the most significant characteristics of professionalism is the professional self-consciousness as the integral characteristic of a person as a self-organized psychological system, which states the conformity of professional activity performed by a person according to the image of the world, which is necessary for understanding the value and the meaning of the actions constituting the content of the professional activity. Professionalism in the conditions of a real life of each person is directed to solve different professional tasks according to the meaning and value of the work performed for the society. In such a way a specialist has to understand himself/herself as a professional for the explication of his/her own professionalization as a constantly developed phenomenon (and not only in this process of the professional activity, but in a whole).

  Key words: professional growth, professionalism of the activity, professional qualification, professional self-consciousness, professional tasks.


Mariia Avhustiuk,

PhD in Psychological Sciences, Senior Teacher of International Relations Department

of the National University of Ostroh Academy





The article is dedicated to the theoretical description of the peculiarities of formation of the skills of efficient metacognitive monitoring of the learning activity of university students. The issue discussed is regarded highly topical due to the distortion of one’s understanding of their knowledge and competence in achieving learning goals. Therefore, the psychological phenomena of metaknowledge and metacognitive motivation. In addition, the tendency to overestimate of what a person knows appears to be a comprehensive issue in the educational paradigm of today’s world. Moreover, among other challenges which an individual can face in the process of learning is the illusion of knowing.

In particular, the responsibility of every single participant in the learning process for factors which generate efficient cooperation and retention of positive results are the very basis of highly efficient metacognitive monitoring. Not only does learning activity consist in managing the in-class activities, but so it also includes the generation of necessary understanding skills, assimilation quality if the information incorporated within the framework of the course and the monitoring of the whole learning process. Thus the points mentioned can lead to formation of the peculiarities which are pivotal for subsequent advance of the person’s self-organization.

Furthermore, we highlighted negative impacts of the illusion of knowing in the learning activity of university students such as inadequate self-estimation of the learning results, metacognitive incompetence, inability to estimate actual level of real understanding of students’ own knowledge skills and strategies, inability to differentiate the illusory knowledge and not illusory one, etc. We also provided an analysis of importance of effective metacognitive monitoring skills formation of the learning activity of university students. It is approved that such formation is possible because of stimulation of students’ learning motivation, formation of adequate self-estimation, development of high levels of reflexivity, development of students’ capability of individual estimation of their own activity and its results, development of abilty to provide effective feedback, teaching the ways how to use the processes of metacognitive monitoring with an aim to understand their own attitude towards the learning disciplines and the chosen speciality. Moreover, the study proved that it is greatly needed to develop in students their ability to the self-estimation of their own learning activity and its results, teaching how to use the processes of metacognitive monitoring with the aim to understand their own attitude to the learned subject or even to the chosen speciality in general, that does not only promote efficient studying, but also helps to forming professional thinking. 

Possible perspectives of future investigations of the problem are also described. One of the promising directions of research is the in-depth study of the influence of the illusion of knowing on metacognitive monitoring and control, and more thorough study of the factors of metacognitive monitoring of the students’ learning activity.

Keywords: confidence, illusion of knowing, metacognitive monitoring, learning activity, judgments.


Olha Tkachuk,

Postgraduate Student, Department of Psychology and Pedagogy, National University of Ostroh Academy






The study of metacognitive monitoring is an important trend in the field of cognitive psychology. The accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is not only a factor in the success and effectiveness of learning activities, but also plays a key role in all areas of personality activity, since it allows to perform cognitive activity effectively.

Metacognitive monitoring is the ability to assess the current state of cognitive activity and is aimed at tracking whether the subject correctly solves the problem, as well as checking their level of understanding of the processed material.

The judgment on learning (JOL) is an important indicator of the development of metacognitive monitoring. In the case when unrealistic rating increases, the student overestimates his / her own level of mastering of the teaching material, which leads to the reduction learning efficiency

The article deals with theoretical analysis of methods of work with educational material as a factor of judgments ratings about the studied material. The following factors of judgment of learned material were singled out: group interaction, the use of schemes and presentations, the use of the method of problematic experience, the provision of feedback by the teacher, and the repetition of the material.

The experimental study consisted of the following phases: phases of direct learning interaction, during which the following forms of work with the material were implemented. After processing the material and in the end of each block students responded to questions related to the learned information. In addition, students were asked to evaluate the accuracy of their own assessment on a scale from 1 (minimum confidence) to 10 (maximum confidence).

Depending on the rating of the judgments, we can distinguish three types of factors by their level of influence on the rating of JOL:

1. Factors that determine the high indexes of judgments about the accuracy (repetition of the material);

2. Factors that determine the ratings of judgments on learned material at the level above the average (schemes, presentations and problem-solving of experience);

3. Factors that determine the ratings of judgments on learned material on the average level (group interaction and feedback).

Consequently, we analyzed the dependence of judgments; ratings on ways of working with information. It is established that the increase in the ratings of judgments on the learned material is influenced by such factors as repetition of the material, the use of visual teaching methods (schemes and presentations), the use of the method of problem-solving experience. In addition, it was found that the average ratings of judgments about the learned material causes the group interaction in the learning process and teacher’s feedback.

The value of our study is that understanding the factors of judgment in the process of classroom interaction between the teacher and the student will allow the teacher to organize the learning process in such a way that it helps the student to more accurately monitor his or her cognitive activity.

Key words: judgment about the learned material, metacognitive monitoring, educational process.

Stanibula Stepan Aleksandrovich

Senior lecturer of the Department of Psychology

Gomel State University named after F. Skorina


The article reveals the relationship between coping strategies and the type of attachment among people in a marriage. The presented study allows to determine the relationship of certain coping strategies with different types of attachment in married people. The article updates the essential importance of the experience of attachment to the specifics of a person’s coping behavior.

Modern society has significant problems in traditional forms of family organization. These aspects are the causes of various problems in different family systems: child-parent, spouses, etc. On this basis, the significant factor appear the formation of various aspects of stress tolerance in spouses. This paper focuses on identifying relationships and binding strategies for spouses. The research will help determine which typology of attachment actualizes certain ways of coping with stress. The research will identify key factors in the development of coping behavior, which will be a definite contribution to the understanding of personal development and its interruption in further.

So spouses with reliable type of attachment use the coping strategy of taking responsibility and the coping strategy of problem solving planning. Spouses with an ambivalent type of attachment to the mother choose the coping strategy of self-control and the coping strategy of seeking social support. Spouses with avoiding affection for the mother choose the coping strategy of confrontation, distancing, flight-avoidance, active avoidance. Spouses who are concerned about close relationships choose the coping strategy of suppressing emotions and circulation. Spouses avoid close relationships, use the coping strategy of maintaining self-control and humility.

Key words: resources, coping strategies, orphans, stress resistance, psychological defense mechanisms.





Ivan Yunyk,

PhD in Pedagogics, Associate Professor of Psychology Department Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics



Popularization of international brands requires the transmission of accurately translated foreign information to advertisers, managers and potential buyers. That's why the problem of self-correction of cognitive dissonance of translators in brand-communication becomes of particular relevance, since the speed and accuracy of the translation of information depends on this. The purpose of the article is to find out the expediency of self-correction of cognitive dissonance by translators in brand-communication as a result of detecting the dependence of the success of their activity on the intensity of its action.

The methodology of the study included questioning of recipients and conducting search experiments with verbal sequential (paragraph-phrase) translation of brand information. In case of mentioned type of translation activity, the cognitive dissonance has the maximum impact on its success. Indicators were the quantitative and qualitative results of translation activities of specialists in brand-communication, which were measured by the author's method.

At the end of the search experiment a questioning was conducted of its participants. Thanks to the responses of translators of different levels of professional activity to the question of dichotomy questionnaire of closed type, the dependence of the success of this process on the effect of cognitive dissonance was revealed and the need for self-correction of its intensity was proved.

Field of application of received results: communicative activity; professional activity of translators; trade sphere, etc.


1. Translators in brand-communication need self-correction of the intensity of cognitive dissonance during professional activity on two levels: on the level of improvement of imaginary models of control attributes and on the level of modification of the program of technical and tactical actions aimed at their realization.

2. The quickest finding by translators of high-quality foreign language constructs of a new generalized image of information occurs under the influence of the optimum intensity of cognitive dissonance or if a cognitive consonance is achieved. Presentation of several alternative variants of foreign-language constructs of a new generalized image during the perception of information about brand enhances cognitive dissonance, while the construction in imagination of such an image from identical foreign-language constructs reduces its intensity.

3. Intermediate fixation of a new generalized image as a result of the rejection of conflicting foreign-language constructs creates conditions for enhancing the cognitive dissonance of translators in brand-communication in the same way, as:

- giving reason to doubt the accuracy of the translation of brand information before deciding as to its relevance to the original content;

- focusing on the search for other variants of the constructs of a new generalized image of the translation of information about brand after its imaginary intermediate fixation;

- evaluation of the translation of prior information while working on the current fragment.

Key words: self-correction; cognitive dissonance; translation activity; brand-communication; construct; information.



Maryna Omelchenko,

Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Docent of Department of Special Pedagogy and Inclusion,

Donbas State Pedagogical University



This article purpose is to reveal the results of the development of informal ways of development and self-development of the professional consciousness of a correctional teacher.

The author uses such methods, as analysis of the results of the study of the features of the professional consciousness of a correctional teacher, the processing of literary sources.

It was identified the following informal ways of professional development and self-improvement of a correctional teacher: practical interaction with colleagues, parents of students, children; "Self-improvement" on the example of their colleagues, even in cases where some of them seem to be insufficiently successful and qualified; “Self-improvement” and interaction with the professional environment with the help of non-verbal means (posture attentive listener, friendly look, a gesture of sympathy, etc.), which create an atmosphere of openness; training in joint activities with fellow correctional teachers; self-education; independent research activities; participation in scientific seminars and conferences, attendance of trainings, etc.; participation in disputes, the resolution of controversial issues with their colleagues or parents of children with special needs in psychophysical development, with whom frank and productive relations have developed.

The article also proposed the following directions for the development of professional consciousness of a correctional teacher as: the development of professional competence, the development of the constituent components of professional consciousness; development of professional and personal qualities.

It should be noted that the development of the professional consciousness of a correctional teacher necessarily passes through crises that must be realized in order to control and correct the process of their occurrence. This is where one of the necessary conditions for professional development arises - readiness to overcome crisis situations. The most significant are not the level of professional competence and not intellectual qualities of a person, but the moral and volitional basis for determining professional goals and their desire to achieve them, which in many respects determines promising areas of research into the problems of development and self-development of correctional teachers in psychology.

To sum up, in the content of this psychological problem, it becomes necessary to take into account the “crisis of a beginner,” working out on practical material means of overcoming mental stress, directing moral and volitional efforts to achieve professional goals and aspirations.

Particular attention is paid to the prospects of issues related to the paradoxical situations arising in the process of professional development and self-development (the need for the teacher to refuse their own life priorities (corresponding goals), which no longer correspond to the notions of happiness and success in professional activities, etc.), social orientation of professional requirements, professional ethics, crisis of professional adaptation. The author notes that the development of data areas of research in scientific works devoted to the issues of the professional development of correctional teacher provides today the promising and practical significance of this psychological problem.


Key words: professional activity of a correction teacher, professional competence, professional crisis, professional development, professional consciousness.



Liliia Fedorchuk,

Postgraduate Student of the Department of Special Psychology and Medicine The Faculty of Special and Inclusive Education

M. P. Drahomanov National Pedagogical University Kyiv City




The article deals with the main scientific approaches to the definition of the content of the concept of “competence”. Based on the generalization of the views of various authors on the essential features of the formation of competence formed precise definition of this concept. Levels of competency formation are described and characterized. The peculiarities of application of the competence approach in the development of future specialists in modern conditions are determined. The basic classification features of a specialist's competence are considered. The main components of the formation of professional competence are described.

In modern conditions of dynamic development of socio-economic and cultural-legal relations, the important role is played by individual peculiarities of each individual to self-realization in society. One of the important conditions for successful self-expression is development of its competence opportunities. The concept of competence is rather complex and polished as it touches many spheres of social life. Therefore, the study of theoretical approaches to the substantiation of content, signs, levels and components of professional competence will allow forming a scientific basis for further scientific researches in the following direction.

The main objective of the article is to study the theoretical aspects of specialist professional competence formation. Formed professional competence will allow the future skilled workers to use the achievement of modern science and practice in professional activities, maximally realize their ability to increase efficiency. The different approaches to interpretation the classification of Professional competence are explained obviously by the fact that the definition of this concept is dynamic and multifaceted. In theoretical terms, professional competence is characterized by the presence and level of development of qualification in activity. It can be described qualitatively as standard-record, which should be sought by future specialist. 

In addition to a thorough comparative overview of the main definitions of professional competence, the article includes the key approaches to its classification. Therefore, it is possible to categorize it by several criteria such as the form of its expression (i.e. conscious and unconscious), level of specialization (objective, special and general), sphere (intrapsychic, exteroceptive, general cultural and health-preserving), and social orientation (communicative, legal, political, role and psychological). The author also analyzes the structure of a professional’s competences having singled out its educational, general cultural, organizational and professional levels. Moreover, the paper contains the study of the functions which competence carries out. They are as follows: cognitive, testing, regulatory, reflexive and, finally, controlling and evaluative one. Finally, the article overviews the major characteristics of the professional competence, which are a system of scientific knowledge, skills and abilities, one’s ability to orient in the educational sphere based on the means of communication and their readiness to apply creative approach, and, ultimately, conscious yearning for constant personal self-development and improvement in a given occupational field. 

Key words: competence, socialization, function, level, classification, professional competence.

 Maria Yakubovska,

аssociate Professor of the Department of Information,

Library and Book Affairs Ukrainian Academy of Printing, Lviv





The research is related to the search for innovative pedagogical means of systematic formation of personality of the modern student. On the example of the achievements of modern cultural studies the paradigm of functioning of humanitarian security of society is considered, which is an important factor of personality formation. The archetype of the cultural paradigm of modernity and its role in shaping students' worldview are systematically analyzed. The article deals with problems of interdependence of development of personally oriented education and humanitarian security of society; systematic evolutionary understanding of the development of personality of modern students is investigated, some variant technologies of providing the bases of cultural education are considered.

The interaction of harmonious development of personality and the cultural paradigm of the present, the problem of forming the cultural outlook of the modern student by means of spiritual-existential artistic influence are researched. These trends are considered as the subject of overal and systematic research. The influence of cultural subjects on the formation of a harmonious personality of a young person is considered.

The algorithm of forming students' cultural thinking as a subject of overal and systematic research is analyzed. The role of cognitive personality development in the time of information explosion is considered. The system of invariant sources of information in the system of modern personally oriented education is investigated.

The dialectical interrelation of philosophical sentiments and the formation of modern pedagogical science is analyzed. These processes lay the space of spiritual freedom of the individual. Comparative analysis of the development of literature as the art of words provides an opportunity to become more aware of the cultural component of modern life as the basis for the systematic realization and self-realization of human individuality.

The necessity of reproduction of the historical perspective of scientific researches is investigated, which will allow to include in the scientific circulation the system of studying of necessary tendencies of innovative development of professional branch. The role of individual perception of this or that phenomenon, which becomes the starting point for qualitative innovative steps in scientific knowledge, is considered.

Key words: cultural competence, cultural outlook, discourse, synergy of words, philosophical and psychological code of words, art of communication, cultural environment, archetype of a work.