№6/2018

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Andrushchenko Inna Grigorievna

Lecturer of the Department of General and Social Psychology and Psychotherapy National Pedagogical University named after M. P. Dragomanov, Kyiv

Psychological features of the influence of coping strategies on the self-development of the personality of adolescence


In order to be successful in modern society, a young person must engage in constant self-development and self-improvement. Self-development of the personality of adolescence is necessary, first of all, for the successful identification and satisfaction of their in-depth needs for self-actualization and self-realization - individual-personal, social, professional, etc. One of the important directions for ensuring a positive dynamics of self-development is the formation and development of constructive coping strategies for overcoming behavior aimed at solving important life problems and problem situations.

The purpose of the article is to analyze the theoretical approaches to the study of the problem of coping strategies of the individual and to empirically determine the peculiarities of their influence on self-development of the personality in adolescence.

Materials and methods of research: theoretical - analysis, comparison and synthesis of scientific literature on the research problem; empirical - surveys, observations, techniques "Coping Mechanisms" (author E. Heim, adapted by L. I. Wasserman).

The results of the empirical study indicate that boys and girls dominate (in descending order) productive coping strategies in the emotional, cognitive and behavioral spheres, indicating that they are struggling to solve existing problems and difficulties by working on them. At the same time, there is a fairly significant percentage of boys and girls (about a third) who use non-constructive and relatively constructive strategies to overcome difficult situations. Active constructive coping strategies help to improve physical well-being, activate mental activity and cause positive emotional experiences and, accordingly, contribute to successful adaptive suppressive behavior. The use of unproductive coping strategies leads to an increase in negative psycho-physiological symptoms, disorganization of intellectual activity, the emergence of negative emotional experiences and is accompanied by an attempt to avoid or ignore the problem, directing efforts not to solve the problem, but only to reduce emotional stress.

Therefore, the choice of the personality of the youth of a certain coping strategy is now of a collision with a complex or problematic situation and depends on the available psycho-physiological and socio-psychological resources, substantially determine it is mental and physical well-being and, accordingly, promotes or hinders the processes of active self-development.

Key words: self-development, coping-resources, coping strategies, coping-behavior, effective and ineffective self-development coping strategies.

Grinova Olga Mihajlivna

PhD in Psychology, Assistance Professor National Pedagogical Dragomanov University

Psychological features of personality’s value orientation development in elder youth age


The problem of personality’s value orientations development in youth is researched in the article. Values as consciousness structure, predetermine development of horizon, image of individuals’ ideal future, priority life goals and plans. Value orientations in a great measure cause choice of person’s life activity directions, special features of personal and professional self-determination. This mental phenomenon is represented in the field of life way design of modern youngsters. Young people comprehend their value cognitions, reconstruct it and create their own authors' mental representations of value orientations. This value orientations spread in all fields of person’s lifetime and space. Young people are more reoriented from retention of social determined values to constructing of his own value orientations in youth. Elder youth in modern psychological literature is considered as the stage of personality’s “inclusion” into the life of adult people. He acquires new possibilities as for the creation of his ideal cognitions of own future, as for the self-sufficient realization of his own life choices.

Scientifical approaches of modern Ukrainian and foreign scientists about the development of value orientations in different fields of youngster’s life - interrelations of love, attitudes in professional, ethnic and spiritual fields of their living space are analyzed. The results of research of dynamics, structural components, empirical researches of value orientations of human in youth in psychological literature are represented. It is reduced, that as altruistic, as selfish values have are important for personality youth age. Priority of various value orientations causes special features of life goals and ways of its realization of modern youngsters.

Author “Questionnaire of value orientations of youngsters” is elaborated and represented. This methodic deal with worthiness and availability of altruistic and selfish value cognition of youngsters in love, professional, ethnic and spiritual relations with own “Self” and social reality. This methodic also gives the possibility to reduce persona value of general values of life and values of individual future for youngsters. Results of research of psychological features of different mental phenomenon’s value in this domain of life for youngsters are represented. It is reduced, that the most important for youngsters are values in narrow fields of living space - romantic and professional relations. As altruistic, as selfish values in this fields are the most important for youth. Self-development of values in large fields of living space - ethnic, spiritual - is a difficult life task for youth. Elaboration of special systems of active social and psychological pieces of training, psychological support promote the development of this value orientations.

Key words: values, value orientations, life way design, personal development, youth age.

Kompanovych Marianna Stanislavivna

teacher of the Department of Рsychology and Рsychotherapy Ukrainian Catholic University

Specificity of carrying out of psychodiagnostics in a clinic (on an example of research of emotional experiences in teenagers with psychosomatic cardiovascular diseases)


The specifics of conducting psychodiagnostics in the clinic are analyzed on the example of the study of emotional experiences in adolescents with psychosomatic cardiovascular diseases. Clinically deterministic personality features of the experimental group of the subjects were revealed. Also, the inherent personal characteristics of adolescents with psychosomatic cardiovascular diseases that determine the choice of psychodiagnostic tools are considered. The main attention is focused on creating a model of emotional experiences of adolescents with psychosomatic cardiovascular diseases included in the dynamics of the psychodiagnostic process.

In a hospital setting, the medical psychologist often faces the complexity of the test psychodiagnosis of patients. Because, in view of the peculiarities of the internal picture of the disease, as well as the stress of hospitalization, patients develop support in contact with a psychologist through standardized tools. What often provokes patients reluctance and reluctance to answer questions in task forms, or to answer formally, missing issues that require deeper inclusion. An additional complication may be the specificity of the diagnosis of the subjects. Given the features of cardiovascular diseases that have a significant psycho-emotional component in their genesis. In psychosomatic cardiology patients, the emotional tone changes easily from positive to negative, they are highly susceptible to any interventional processes, and in particular to the frustration that activity can cause due to subjective dissatisfaction with its implementation (speed, accuracy, unpleasant regress to repressed memories, etc.).

Psychodiagnosis of adolescents with psychosomatic cardiovascular diseases is not an exception. The process of psychodiagnosis is complicated both by the age of the subjects being studied through the accelerated dynamics of psychophysical development, and also taking into account the psychological constituents of the disease, which is the continuum of psychological properties such as emotional lability, alexithymia, depression, hysterosity, neuroticism and undervalued self-esteem. These properties are exacerbated by the stress of hospitalization, which in turn complicates, minimizing, and often makes the process of using the test diagnostic impossible. The consequence of such complications in psychodiagnosis is the inability to successfully carry out a psycho-corrective effect in which there is an objective need.

Key words: clinical psychodiagnostics, adolescents, psychosomatic cardiovascular diseases, emotional experiences, hospitalization syndrome, projective techniques, introspection, self-reflection.

Lokhvytska Liubov Vasylivna

PhD in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Psychology and Pedagogy of Preschool Education, Deputy Dean for Scientific Work of the Faculty of Pedagogy and Psychology of the State High Educational Institution “Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi Hryhorii Skovoroda State Pedagogical University” (Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine)

The phenomenon of moral upbringing in a survey of the moral development of personality: the historical reasoning of fundamental basics


Modern society is suffering from shortcomings and miscalculations in moral upbringing of growing up generation. That is why we have the necessity of searching for realization of the best approach and psychological mechanism of its realization. But it’s impossible to create modern innovative technologies that are based on appreciating a course of moral development of personality and specificity of features each of elements without knowledge’s about the historical reasoning of incipience of basics of the theory of moral upbringing. It determined a content of realization of scientific intelligence which is dedicated to the illustration of a retrospective of the evolution of upbringing in context moral development from philosophical, historical-pedagogical doctrines to positions of psychological science in foreign countries.

A presentation of this scientific analysis, synthesis, and generalization of the expressed ideas and positions is conditioned by logics of the chronological description of interpretation of quintessence of upbringing according to moral development of personality in different concepts mainly by thinks of West Europe. The content of article is consist of some aspects of moral upbringing of personality from the philosophical works of ancient authors (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and others) that laid the foundation of humanistic paradigm of moral upbringing of person – to representation of complete concepts of moral upbringing of personality (XVII c. – beginning XIX c.). Work that belongs to historical-philosophical, historical-pedagogical and historical-psychological heritage (J. A. Komensky, J. Locke, J. J. Russo (French. J. J. Rousseau), I. Kant, J. G. Pestalozzi, J. F. Herbart, R. Owen and others) enriched scientific thesaurus meaningfully.

Analysis of scientific material discovered the features of different concepts of upbringing in context of moral development of personality: an acceptance as dominant moral upbringing as a component of the system of comprehensive upbringing; a disclosure of inner power and abilities of the personality in the process of realization of edifying influence and according a moral growth; an orientation of upbringing for help personality to master moral rules of life in social and acquirement of moral experience; an acceptance of importance of moral upbringing that provides a familiarization of personality the outworld.

So, the basis of moral upbringing of the personality comprehend essential definition of conception itself in philosophical, pedagogical and psychological sense; revealing the scientific approaches, principles and meaning and tasks in particular: cognitive-emotional (St. John Chrysostom, J. G. Pestalozzi), ethical (J. A. Komensky), normative-individual (J. Locke), individual-valuable (J. J. Russo), individual (J. G. Pestalozzi), deontological (I. Kant, J. F. Herbart), valuable (M. Montaigne), socio-culturological (R. Owen); component’s structure of the process: psychological mechanisms; factors of the process of upbringing and the selection of upbringing toolkit.

In accordance with the above the conclusion are undeniable according convincing impact philosophical (I. Kant) philosophical and pedagogical and philosophical and psychological opinion (J. A. Komensky, J. Locke, J. J. Russo, J. G. Pestalozzi, J. F. Herbart, R. Owen, etc.) on the development of theory of upbringing in particular moral upbringing and strategic importance of scientific comprehensions its postulates in context of the subject of our study – the definition of psychological mechanisms and regularity of moral upbringing of preschool children.

The presented analysis of the content of philosophical, historical-pedagogical and psychological sources promotes authors conceptual paradigm of the moral upbringing of the preschool children.

Key words: personality, moral development, moral upbringing, moral growth, inner power and abilities of personality, moral experience, the conceptual approach in moral upbringing.

Lysenkova Iryna Petrivna

Ph.D. in correctional pedagogic, Associate Professor, Head of department of psychology and special education, Mykolayiv institute of human development of institution of higher education “Open international university of human development «Ukraine»”

AN INDIVIDUAL APPROACH TO WORK WITH CHILDREN OF JUNIOR SCHOOL AGE WITH COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS


The article is devoted to the actual problem of the present: the use of an individual approach to work with children with cognitive impairments, which will affect more effectively their personality development. The state and essence of the investigated problem in psychological and pedagogical literature and in the practice of educational institutions is determined. The research of the influence of the individual approach on the development of children with cognitive impairments is described.

The psycho-pedagogical analysis shows an increase in the number of children with cognitive impairments, which causes difficulty in mastering the programs of education and upbringing of children in pre-school and general education institutions, timely psychological and pedagogical preparation of children for school and the formation of thinking-cognitive activity, behavior and personality of a child. Cognitive impairment manifests itself not only in the learning process but also in the field of communication, in the perception of social experience, in individual mental development.

Correction of cognitive impairments is an important task of special psychology and correctional pedagogy. The training and upbringing of children with cognitive impairments and the direct psychological and pedagogical work with this category of children, especially in pre-school and general education institutions, acquires special significance. Using the individual approach, the psychologist and the teacher will understand the child better, in determining the peculiarities of the individualization of the educational process, S. Ladyvir notes, that the application of the individual approach ensures the maximum development of all abilities of the individual. In addition, the researcher emphasizes that the important psychological and pedagogical significance of the individual approach is that it enables to identify and strengthen the positive qualities of the child and eliminate certain disadvantages. Z. Ikunina expresses the opinion that if the organization of training in differentiated programs taking into account the appropriate level of mental development of children and their learning, constant accounting of the material absorption of children and ensuring the emotional saturation of the content of education and upbringing, individualization acts as an effective means of teaching children with cognitive impairments .

Key words: individual approach, educational work, upbringing work, personality development, child, cognitive impairment.

Shatynska Olena Petrivna

Lecturer Drohobych State Pedagogic University of Name I. Franko

Parental dyadic coping in the family stressful situation


Current situation involves a big change for children as they settle into a new environment. As children grow and develop, all children encounter situations where they feel worried, nervous and sometimes even scared. Helping children to learn coping skills will allow them to develop and practice skills that will enable them to cope with future changes and challenges. This will help to strengthen children mental health and well-being now and into the future.

The purpose of the research is to study the parental dyadic coping in the family stressful situation. The article shows the importance of studying parental dyadic coping, examines the theoretical approaches of the determination of dyadic coping in the context of the child's defense system, describes the main types of dyadic coping, reveals the concept of family stress.

Coping is the conscious effort to reduce stress. Coping, which entails effortful emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses that help manage acute or ongoing stress, is a critical aspect of healthy child development. Family stress can be defined as any stressor that concerns one or more members of the family (or the whole system) at a defined time, which impacts the emotional connection between family members, their mood, well-being, as well as the maintenance of the family relationship. When the family is unable to balance demands and capabilities without making a change in its structure and interaction patterns, a crisis occurs.

Dyadic stress represents a distinct form of family stress, involving both partners directly or indirectly. Although the definition of dyadic stress has been used primarily in the focus of close relationships, it can be easily expanded to family systems. These joint coping efforts, or cooperative use of common resources within the family, are referred to as dyadic coping. Dyadic coping has emerged as a strong predictor of relationship satisfaction. Less research has focused on the effects of dyadic coping on other outcomes or family members.

Thus, coping skills develop from infancy and are learned by watching others and trial and error. Parental dyadic coping leads to the emergence and development of a "notion we both" between the parent and the child, strengthen confidence between them, increasing satisfaction of their relationships and a sense of security. Positive dyadic coping provides an effective mechanism for confronting the current stressful situation, and the acquired experience can be the basis for the further development of its own productive coping system.

Key words: coping, defense system of personality, dyadic coping, family stress

Stanibula Stepan Alexandrovich

Graduate student of psychology Gomel State University named after Francis Skorina

Copying strategies for students with the various type of attachment


The article discusses the features of coping strategies among students with the different type of attachment. Theoretic methodological analysis of the structure and nature of coping strategy are given. It examines the role of attachment in the formation of the individual adaptation of the system, in particular, coping behavior. The article submission An Empirical Study of coping strategies of students with different typologies of affection. Found that respondents with an unreliable type of attachment as a leading strategy of distancing used. Subjects with a reliable type of attachment to the master is a coping strategy to search for social support. Respondents with ambivalent attachment type as the leading used coping strategies such as coping strategies as self-control. Results of the study can be used by psychologists and social educators in the development of psycho-pedagogical support of students in terms of technology in higher education.

Just as we believe the results of the study can be a serious theoretical and practical basis for the construction of various complexes of psychological support of students of different categories in different periods of study in higher education. Since the particular period of training is associated with various complex events, demanding on behalf of maintaining the various components of personality that allow coping with various crises.

Key words: coping, coping, coping strategies, affection.

Tkachuk Olha

Postgraduate Student, Department of Psychology and Pedagogy, National University of Ostroh Academy

Psychology-pedagogical factors of the illusion of knowledge in the educational activities of students


The research of the processes of metacognition in the environment of the educational activity is the most perspective direction for deeper learning of the issues relating to the progress in the educational activity. Planning the solution of the educational problem, tracking the understanding of the material that was learned within the research process and evaluation of the efficiency of the accomplishment of educational problems – all these components are the integral parts of the metacognition processes, namely, the manifestation of the level of development of metacognitive skills.

According to Elkonin’s concept, the educational activity includes three components: educational activities, educational tasks, and activities of evaluation and control. Educational activities are the activities of the students aimed at getting and searching for the scientific concepts and general ways of actions, their reproduction and application to the specific tasks. Educational tasks are characterized as the following - the student receives the task to master general ways of actions and the purpose of their assimilation including samples and directions for searching of such general ways to solve the task of the specific class. The actions of the evaluation and control are aimed at the generalization of the results received from the educational activities and the fixation of the final quality of assimilation of scientific knowledge and general way of solving problems.

Considering the illusion of knowledge through the process of educational activity the researchers study its manifestation in the context of work with educational information. The illusion of knowledge is determined here as an error of metacognitive monitoring, which appears due to excessive subjective confidence in the knowledge, that does not correspond to the objective progress in the fulfillment of the task. The illusion of knowledge is put in the same line with such concepts as «cognitive optimism», «excessive confidence» and «subjective confidence». After analyzing the factors of the illusion of knowledge, it is advisable to classify them in the context of a three-component structure of educational activity. To the factors, which appear in the educational task component refer to the sense of complexity of simplicity of the task, the way of presentation of educational information and the type of the task.

The following factors belong to the educational activity component, namely, presence or absence of the feedback, the use of the problem-making experience methodology, repeating of the material, presence or absence of group work.

In the process of evaluation and control of educational activity, the factor of presence or absence of evaluation of situation may appear.

Key words: metacognition, metacognitive monitoring, the illusion of knowledge, educational activity, subjective confidence.

Tretiakova Yuliia Volodymyrivna

PhD in Psychology Taras Shevchenko national university of Kyiv

Comparison of well-being determinants of active and not active social media users


Interest in the problem of psychological well-being arose in the second half of the twentieth century. Considerable attention to this phenomenon was given by positive psychology, paying attention not to the study of deviations and diseases of the psyche, but directly to the individual resources and potential.

The concept of "well-being" can be considered as a multifactorial construct, representing a complex interconnection of cultural, social, psychological, physical, economic and spiritual factors.

A fundamental transformation is taking place in the field of information exchange and communication during the past twenty years, after Internet appearance, which certainly affects the ways of psychological well-being achievement. The Internet affects virtually all spheres of human activities (cultural, social, psychological, economic, spiritual, etc.) that are components of psychological well-being.

The aim of this article is to reveal and describe the difference in determinants of psychological well-being among active and inactive social networks users.

Students aged between 19 and 27 years, people of various professions between 27 and 39 years took part in the research.

In the research were used following methods: observation, self-observation, questionnaires, structured interviews, qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis (descriptive statistics, t-criterion of the Student, correlation analysis)

The results of empirical studies showed that "low-activity" users have a higher level of psychological well-being. They are characterized by a greater ability to build close trusting relationships with others and at the same time have greater independence and a level of positive self-perception and confidence than "highly active" users. People with a high level of psychological well-being use social networks to achieve a specific goal (mainly receiving and sending messages). And also, they visit the social network in a positive mood or with interest in something specific, spending less time there.

People with low levels of psychological well-being often use social network from being idle to distract.

Key words: psychological well-being, patterns of behavior, the rate of use social network.

Zakharchuk T.M.

postgraduate student of the Department of Psychology and Pedagogy of the National University "Ostroh Academy", practical psychologist of preschool educational institution.

THE VIEW OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC SCIENTISTS ON THE PROBLEM OF METHODOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS


In modern studies devoted to solving the problem of increasing the effectiveness of various activities, in particular, the educational activities of students, modern authors pay attention to the so-called metacognitive processes, namely those that promote better learning, processing, and reproduction of information. Based on the so-called goal of cognitive experience, knowledge, sense, planning, and strategy. Metaphysics is defined as knowledge of the functioning of their own cognitive processes, or in a more simple definition of "thinking about cognition."

It can take on a variety of forms, including knowledge of how and when to use specific strategies and actions to solve specific tasks. Modern educational requirements determine the need for a personality orientation for cognitive development, which allows more efficient processing of information and fulfilling the complexity of the task. However, in recent years, people often have erroneous ideas about how knowledgeable and competent they are in solving certain tasks. That is why the important role is played by metacognitive abilities, which ensure the organization and control of cognitive activity necessary for solving any intellectual problems. Recently, in science, the concept of "metacognitive ability" - the ability to relate not only to the processing of information but also to the perception of the very cognition itself (the process by which the processing of information takes place in our consciousness) appears more and more. Consequently, in today's psychological literature, there are several theoretical concepts regarding the peculiarities of development and manifestation of metastatic processes in ontogenesis. In particular, they derive from the basic positions of metacognitivism, which detail each individual metaprocess, its structure, and form of manifestation.

Key words: the purpose of cognitive development, the effectiveness of learning, metacognitive ability, the purpose of cognition, the purpose of thinking, metapamyat, thinking operations.

Zhdanyuk Lyudmila Alekseevna

senior lecturer of the methodology of the content of education Poltava Regional Institute of Postgraduate Pedagogical Education named after M.V. Ostrogradsky

FEATURES OF THE EMOTIONAL ATTITUDE TOWARDS STUDENTS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF EMOTIONAL PROFILES, LEVELS OF EDUCATIONAL MOTIVATION AND GENDER OBSERVATIONS


The urgency of the study of the emotional attitude towards learning (EAL) among students is due to the loss of interest in learning, the formation of a "consumer" attitude, which leads to a decrease in the level of success, and as a result, the process of obtaining higher education acquires the signs of "formalities. The activity of students aimed at achieving educational goals, tasks, projects is accompanied by different mental states that can not only promote but also hinder their successful implementation. Students’ mental states that appear in the process of educational activity - one of the key forms of emotional attitude to learning. In modern psychological science, the study of the emotional aspect of the learning process is not given due to attention, which leads to negative consequences, namely: the predominance of external motivation among students, the unattractiveness of educational activity, various unfavorable manifestations in the emotional development of the student's personality, which complicate learning.

We suggested the existence of differences in the EALs for students with different levels of educational motivation ("successful / failing"), types of emotional profile ("pessimists / optimists"), gender ("women / men"). The purpose of the empirical study, the results of which are presented in this article, is to test this assumption. Materials and methods of research.

1.) To study the types of students' emotional profile and their evaluation we used the modification of the method "Thermometer" (the technique "Thermometer" was developed by N. Fetiskin. As a result of the processing of the obtained data and the performed cluster analysis by means of k-means (k-means clustering) for Using the Statistics 6.0 software package, the students were divided into 2 clusters, which were conventionally called "pessimists / optimists";

2.) Method of express-estimation of positive and negative emotions "Scales of positive affect and negative affect" (SPANA), which is the modification of the English-language technique of PANAS (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) by D. Watson, L. Clark, and A. Telegen;

3.) The conclusion about the level of success of each student who participated in the study was made on the basis of the current success and effectiveness of the last two sessions. Students who only had grades "good" and "excellent" were classified as "successful" (n = 103), and in the group "lagging behind" (n = 113) included those who studied basically on "satisfactory;

4.) To test the assumption of the existence of differences in the EALs for students with different levels of educational motivation ("successful / "lagging behind" "), types of emotional profile ("pessimists / optimists"), gender characteristics ("women / men") test data obtained for With the help of the technique "SPANA", they were processed on a computer using the parametric t-criterion of Student (using Statistics 6.0).

The empirical study was attended by students of 1-3 courses of institutions of higher education I-II accreditation level, Poltava region, total 216 people, including 101 female and 115 male, aged 15 to 19 years old.

Conclusions. We have found out that the EAL according to SPANA indicators is different for students with different levels of educational motivation, with different types of emotional profiles and also have gender characteristics. So the integral positive (PA) EAL among the successful is noticeably higher than in the lagging. They in comparison with the lagging behind feel more: enthusiastic, full of strength, interested, lumped, inspired, determined, attentive, cheerful. While lagging behind students show more guilty feelings. It is established that the integral positive (PA) EAL of optimists is considerably higher than that of pessimists, and the integral negative (NA) EAL of pessimists is considerably higher than that of optimists. Optimists-students surpass pessimists for: enthusiasm; confidence; inspiration, determination, cheerfulness. We note that pessimists-students, in comparison with optimistic students, feel more oppressed: depressed, frustrated, frightened, angry, angry, shy, nervous, restless, anxious. The domination in the partial indicators of these definitions indicates the presence of depressive, anxiety states, stress, decreased activity, lack of energy. The gender differences in the structure of the ESS are revealed. Women in comparison with men are more likely to experience NA. Positive indicators of women are shown in comparison with men in states: enthusiasm; concentration; carefulness. But most of the indicators in women, unlike men, reflect negative emotional states: depression, anxiety, fright, shame, anxiety.

The prospect of our further research is the study of differences in the EAL for students with different levels of academic motivation and forms of academic self-regulation.

Key words: attitude to educational learning, emotional attitude to learning, academic motivation, emotional profile, positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA).