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Astremska Iryna Volodymyrivna,

PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor

Petro Mohyla,

 Black Sea National University



The article considers the categories of self-attitude and attitude to others as specific for representatives of the professions «person-person», because the subject of their professional activity is direct interpersonal interaction. In a professional environment, a person learns certain «behavioral patterns» typical of representatives of a particular profession and related to the specifics of the activity performed. The attitude to people around is determined by the framework of these patterns, therefore, representatives of each particular profession are characterized by specific self-attitude and have characteristic features of their attitude to others.

By means of the factor analysis steady complexes of variables are revealed that allow to describe five main types of interrelation of self-attitude and the attitude to others: 1) positive self-attitude at the protective-negative attitude to others. This factor combined the characteristics of timid, insecure people who seek to avoid a hurtful relationship with others; 2) positive self-attitude and selective attitude to others. Representatives of this group are characterized by the ability to effectively manage their own emotions and experiences. Assessment of others is based mainly on external criteria. The sphere of individual psychological characteristics is ignored, because the area of close interaction with other people does not seem particularly significant; 3) conscious positive and indulgently-negative attitude to others. These are self-confident, strong people for whom others are not of particular interest; 4) unconscious positively-inflated self-attitude with a selective attitude to others, which is determined by the level of self-favor. Respondents are not characterized by a tendency to deep reflection, they are quite satisfied with themselves, and their attitude to others is selective: positive to those who treat them favorably and negatively to others; 5) consciously critical self-attitude with a positive attitude to others. These are people who are characterized by a tendency to self-reflection themselves and doubts about their «I». When the attitude to others is more positive, a person is inclined to better assess others and experience less sense of superiority.

Three types with a specific combination of self-attitude and attitude to others who experience a "leading" feeling are identified and described: 1) self-esteem, 2) autosympathy, 3) self-humiliation.

Each of the groups has a specific combination of self-attitude and attitude to others, which leaves an imprint on all spheres and areas of life.

Especially significant is the impact of this relationship on professional success.

The most optimal in this sense will be a combination of positive self-attitude and positive attitude to others, characteristic of the second group of subjects. This is the main criterion for the professional success of professions such as «person-person».

Key words: self-attitude, self-concept, attitude to others, profession type «person-person», professional success.



Yelesina Maryna Oleksandrivna

postgraduate student

of the Department of Social Assistance and Practical Psychology

Odesa I.I. Mechnikov National University



This paper is devoted to the consideration of the concept about coping strategies and their varieties;  the specifics of the seafarers work as a sphere of an extreme situation; the concept of personal characteristics and protective mechanisms. The object of the study is the relationship of the personal characteristics of seafarers with the choice of coping strategies.  The subject of the research is coping strategies as a system of psychological defense mechanisms and patterns of overcoming behavior in seafarers. 

The problems of strategies of stress-overcoming are considered on the example of the professional work of maritime transport workers.  Serious attention is paid to the study of the relationship of strategies of stress-overcoming behavior that an individual applies with his emotional state and success in social and other spheres of life. The stress conditions and the complex specific nature of the activities of the maritime transport worker have been determined, which to a large extent predetermine the need for psychological components of readiness for this kind of service.  The stressful conditions and the complex nature of the activities of the maritime transport worker largely determine the need for psychological components of readiness for this kind of service. 

The specifics of the seafarers work is such that this type of activity is of particular interest when studying a person who is in an extreme situation, which is the field of activity of water transport specialists.

The specificity of the activity is associated with social isolation, sensory isolation, cumulative effects of rolling and vibration, climate-zonal contrasts, round-the-clock work, increased intensity, intensity of work and requires the concentration of physical and psychological forces from a professional. Expeditionary-rotational method of organizing the work of seafarers, the repeated movement of ships over long distances with the intersection of several time zones make high demands on the human body due to changes in seasonal and daily rhythms against the background of an incomplete adaptation of man to the changed environmental conditions.  All these and a number of other factors affect everyone on board.  Meanwhile, the majority of maritime educational institutions are mainly engaged only in the training of specialists and practically do not deal with issues related to the mental health of seafarers.

Using the methods of theoretical analysis, the mechanism of a person’s psychological coping in difficult life situations is considered, which largely determines the effectiveness of his socio-psychological adaptation to changing environmental conditions.

The features of stress-overcoming behavior in the professional field of seafarers are analyzed.  Emphasized the need to improve the professional level, the ability to resist all sorts of difficulties, the search for a way out of difficult situations, the use of non-standard solutions, the implementation of emotional control over themselves.  The correlation interrelation of types of psychological defenses with behavioral characteristics in the professional activities of seafarers is considered.  It is indicated that the need primarily for emotional support is manifested in the desire to be listened to, to receive an empathetic answer, to share with someone their experiences.  The factor of search for mainly effective support is noted, the leading one of which is the need. The purpose of the study is due to the study of the relationship of personality characteristics and coping-behavior of sailors in a stressful situation. 

Thus, according to the primary results of the study, the following conclusions can be drawn: it is customary to understand the constantly changing behavioral and cognitive attempts of a person to cope with special internal or external requirements, estimated as stress or exceeding the individual’s ability to overcome them.  The highest rate about selectivity of the negation strategies and regression among sailors, followed by substitution and intellectualization, as well as repression, projection and reactive formation.  The lowest indicator of the chosen compensation strategy.

Also affected the problem of nautical educational institutions that are engaged in the preparation of future specialists, but do not pay enough attention to issues related to the mental health of seafarers.

Key words: personal features;coping; extreme situation; marine specialties workers; individual applies.



Nataliia Zhyhailo

Doctor of Psychology, Professor of Management Department,

Ivan Franko National University of Lviv


Marianna Kokhan

PhD in Economics, Assoc. Prof. of Management Department

Ivan Franko National University of Lviv



The article is devoted to the importance of information spirituality for the modern society. The object of this study is the process of spiritual formation of student youth. The subject of research is psychological mechanisms of formation of information spirituality in adolescence. The purpose of the study is to establish the psychological patterns and mechanisms of information spiritual formation of the student’s personality.

The scientific novelty of the research is to develop and approve: a model of personality spirituality; in identifying criteria, levels and indicators of information spirituality of a person at a young age; in the disclosure of the psychological patterns of information spiritual formation of the individual during adolescence; in the development and experimental testing of the program of information spiritual formation of the student’s personality; in the development and testing within the framework of the specified program of complex diagnostic and correction system.

The spiritual development of the individual has been important to mankind at all times and ages. Nowadays, when the information-energy current collapses like an avalanche on a person, the spirituality of the individual becomes of particular importance. Along with great achievements in the development of society, the personality itself and his/her education, there are more and more noticeable problems that are directly related to the life and health of a young person, his/her life satisfaction and methods of self-realization. Also, a high level of education does not always guarantee that a person’s life and activity will be guided by moral and spiritual principles, and there are many examples of this. In fact, without spiritual revival and renewal, the return of spirituality in the souls of people, it is impossible to speak of the affirmation of our society, its compliance with the norms of civil existence, legislative and real guarantees of the rights and freedoms of an individual, which are under priority throughout the civilized world.

Youth, as a subject and object of spiritual culture, in their interests, values, orientations, needs, actions reflect the level of spiritual culture of the society in which they live. At the same time, adaptation to spiritual culture develops spiritual needs, shapes the intellectual, aesthetic interests of a person, reflects his/her inner wealth, degree of spiritual maturity or the level of qualities of personality, which is called spirituality.

Keywords: spirituality, information spirituality, formation of information spirituality of a person, spiritual values, student youth, conceptual model, criteria and indicators of information spirituality.